Monsoon Mission of India

Weather conditions of a country define the socio-economic prosperity of a country. Monsoon mechanism of India is one of the complex phenomena on which the country's economy is dependent. More than 70% of the population is dependant on agriculture and a little change in the mechanism of monsoon may have a huge impact on the production of crops that year. 

Recognizing the importance of monsoon patterns and the dependency of agriculture on monsoonal rainfall, the Ministry of Earth Sciences in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Meteorology (Pune), National centre for medium range weather forecasting and Indian meteorological department (New Delhi) has launched a mission named Monsoon mission of India. 

This mission plays a huge role in predicting the mechanism of monsoon as the current predictions are not adequate. In recent times, several images, super parametrizations, and data assimilation have shown that the variability in tropics can be resolved, which creates a great scope for improving the prediction of monsoons. The mission is supported by international research groups with definite objectives and improve the models in range scale. Base Models to be used are

i) The American model, Climate Forecast System (CFS): developed by National centres of Environmental Prediction (NCEP), NOAA, USA. CFS is a coupled ocean-atmospheric modelling system that combines data from ocean and atmosphere providing long-range forecasting (seasonal prediction of monsoon).

ii) The unified model (UM): This model is developed by the United Kingdom meteorological office (UKMO) which is utilized for short to medium range prediction. Objectives of the monsoon mission are

1) To forecast the onset, period of the monsoon along with the quantity of rainfall.

2) To improve collaboration between academic institutions with research and development organization monsoon.

3) To extend the range of monsoon prediction system and also short term prediction system.

4) To provide information and assistance to the farmers depending on monsoon which effects both surplus and deficit condition.

5) To warn the distressed areas in case of excess rainfall and also at the situation of droughts.

6) To predict very complex phenomena, El-Niño, and its impact on Indian monsoon. Achievements of Monsoon Mechanism:

1) It helped to forecast numerous disasters from the past 7 years and many cyclonic disasters like Hud-Hud, Phailan, that rescued many people from the flood-prone areas with management activities.

2) With this mission, the weather conditions are forecast and that helps farmers by
providing them with prior information and guidance.

3) It is able to check the pollution levels and environmental conditions that affect the pattern of monsoon.

4) It increased the share of contribution of manpower and human resources development program towards research and their expertise in technology, particularly in meteorology and atmospheric sciences.

Monsoon mission of India is one of the highly advanced missions improved for the prediction of monsoonal rainfall. With this, the pattern of monsoon is predicted and also ICAR (Indian Council for Agriculture Research) with the information provided by the mission and Indian Meteorological department assists the farmers to produce certain crops especially at the situation of deficit excess rainfall so that the production is optimum without a huge loss. Since the launch of mission in 2010, it is always improving in technology to predict accurately and also protecting the sector and disaster-prone areas by providing prior information.