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2019-08-27 | By CCSA

Jammu &Kashmir: Article 370: Inception and Abrogation and main points of article 370

Inception and Abrogation

1. Unique and Troubled: The unique state of Jammu and Kashmir is as beautiful as complex. Since 1947, it has been a case study of Constitutional Law in India. The story has concluded in August 2019 but looks all set to enter a totally new phase.

2. Important events: 1927, 1932, 1956: Maharaja Hari Singh notified the Law (in 1927 and 1932) defining subjects of the state and their rights. Anyone born or settled in the state before 1911 was considered a permanent resident. The Jammu and Kashmir Constitution made in 1956 retained this definition. So only permanent residents can get jobs, buy property, etc. The Two articles of Indian Constitution – Articles 370 (Special Status) and Article 35A (permanent residency)-Stands in the way of ‘full integration’ of the state with the Union of India. There are complex historical reasons for both. After the Dogra rule ended, Sheikh Abdullah got power and negotiated Article 370 with Delhi. India retained defense, Communications and foreign affairs only.

3. Accession to the Union of India: Maharaja Hari Singh was the last ruling Maharaja of the Princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. He accepted accession to the Union of India when Pakistani soldiers attacked the state, with the aim of ultimately capturing it. India came to the rescue immediately upon his request. From 1846 until 1952, the princely state was ruled by a Jamwal Rajput Dogra Dynasty. The state was created in 1846 after the First Anglo-Sikh War as per the Treaty of Amritsar. The East India Company annexed the Kashmir Valley, Jammu, Ladakh, and Gilgit-Baltistan from the Sikhs, and then transferred it to Gulab Singh in return for an indemnity payment of 7,500,000 Nanakshahee Rupees.

4. Post-1947: In 1947, Britain gave up its rule of India, and the Indian Independence Act created the Dominion of Pakistan and Dominion of India. As per the Act, “ the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, and with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States.”  “Each of the princely states was now free to join Indian or Pakistan or to remain independent. This was a masterstroke by the British to ensure a complete balkanization of the Indian Nation, something that Sardar Patel prevented through his efforts.

5. Hari Singh’s stand: At the time of Indian independence, Maharaja Hari Singh preferred to become independent but the attack by raiders from the Northwest Frontier Province, supported by Pakistan, put an end to his plans for independence. On 26th Oct 1947, the Maharaja signed the Instrument of Accession joining the Dominion of India in return for military aid. The Western and northern districts presently known as Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan passed to the control of Pakistan in a series of unfortunate events.

6. Turn of events post 2014: It was inconceivable till a few years ago that the very status of these two so-called “Sacrosanct” Articles will ever be questioned. All politicians would do the usual Chest-thumping on “Kashmir being an integral part of India” and then meekly admit that “Articles 370 and 35A are sacrosanct” and nothing else can be done. When PM Modi took over, the unthinkable has happened. Questions have been raised about Article 35A, and now, even the hallowed Article 370. In August 2017, the Supreme Court pointedly asked the Central Government if Article 370 was indeed a temporary provision that had now lapsed and hence is no longer valid! This surely was a landmark event.

7. Public Interest Litigation on Article 370: The latest PIL on this matter (filed by a lawyer Anil K Jha) raised all these uncomfortable questions in one shot. The most pointed question is that “temporary provisions” were valid only till the Constituent Assembly itself existed. The moment the Constituent Assembly of India, and definitely when the Constituent Assembly of J and K was dissolved (1957), all such provisions ended. In 1954, the State had ratified the accession. In any case, the President of the Parliament had not ratified the Constitution of that State.

8. Full Integration: Article 370 (special Status) and Article 35A (Permanent residency) are the two that stand in the way of ‘full integration’ of the state with the Union of India. There are complex historical reasons for both.

9. August 2017- Article 370- Supreme Court: A 3-Judge Bench of the SC asked the Union Government if Article 370 was just a temporary provision that was no longer valid. The judges were: CJI JS Khehar, Justice Adarsh K Goyal and DY ChandraChud. The petition filed claimed that Article 370 is not a permanent provision, and would have lapsed with time. This PIL was dismissed by the Delhi HC earlier, Hence the petitioner approached the Supreme Court.

10. J & K High Court :In July 2015, the division bench of J&K high court comprising Justice Muzaffar Attar and Justice A M Magrey enumerated the importance of Article 35A  and said this law, which has been applied to J&K, clarifies the already existing Constitutional and Legal position and does not extend something new to the State. The Court observed that Article 35A was only a clarificatory provision to clear the issue of Constitutional position obtaining in the rest of the country in contrast to J&K. It had said that “ The power of Parliament to make laws in respect of J&K is circumscribed and it can make laws for it only where permitted by the State and not otherwise, and that too in accordance with the mechanism prescribed by Article 370 of the Constitution of India.” Simply said, the Constitution could not apply, by its own force, to Jammu and Kashmir.

11. The Abdullahs as saviours: National Conference President and LokSabha member Farooq Abdullah, in his typical dramatic style, warned of an “uprising” if Article 35A was abrogated. His son Omar Abdullah now wants to educate the people of J&K about the implications of striking down 35A and will organize awareness camps. Former CM MehboobaMufti has also warned against the abrogation of constitutional provisions.

12. Implications of Article 370: There are many.

  1. Citizens have double citizenship.
  2. The State has its own flag.
  3. The legislative Assembly duration is 6 years.
  4. Supreme Court’s orders are not applicable in State.
  5. A lady Citizen of J&K, if married to a citizen of India (outside that State), stands to lose her citizenship and associated rights.
  6. Indian Citizens cannot buy land and become permanent residents in that state.
  7. IPC(Indian Penal Code) is not applicable. They have the Ranbir Penal Code or RPC, introduced during the Dogra dynasty rule with Ranbir Singh as its ruler.

13. Current Status:

  1. With the Passage of Resolution of revocation of A:370 and A:35A in the Parliament introduced through a Presidential Order. The special status to J&K stands void. There are no specific or preferential property rights.
  2. All the above points stand canceled.
  3. Now Jammu and Kashmir in bifurcated into Two Union Territories.
    1. Jammu and Kashmir will be a Union Territory with Legislature.
    2. Ladakh will also be a Union Territory without Legislature.

14. J&K before and after article 370




Special powers exercised by J&K

No special powers now

Dual citizenship

Single citizenship

Separate flag for J&K

Tricolor flag

Article 356 and 360 are  not applicable

Article 356 and 360 are applicable

No reservation for minorities

Reservations will be applicable for minorities

RTI not applicable

RTI is applicable

Duration of the legislative assembly for J&K is 6 years

Assembly duration for J&K union territory is 5 years

Indian citizens for other states cannot buy land in J&k

Indian citizens from other states can buy land in J&K now

Conclusion: Now, with the A:370 is revoked and integration of J&K with Indian Union stands completed successfully.

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2019-06-11 | By CCSA

UPSC preliminary exam notification 2020 dates and Preparation strategy Civil Services exam

Are you searching for UPSC Prelims examination 2020? To get selected into IPS or IAS you need to appear for UPSC Civil Services exam UPSC Prelims examination date 2020

As per the official UPSC examination date. Civil Services Prelims (objective) examination date will be conducted on 31-05-2020(Sunday) and civil services mains (essays) exam will be conducting in 18-09-2020(Friday).

UPSC Examination calendar 2020. Important dates for competitive exams in 2020

• Notification date of Civil services prelims and Indian Forest Service prelims students can apply for UPSC form February 12, 2020

• The last date to apply for Civil Services Prelims and Indian Forest Service’s Prelims will be March 03, 2020

•The Civil Services Prelims Examination Duration will be 1 Day and The Civil Services Mains Examination Duration will be 5 Days

 UPSC Notifications and Dates

Exam Dates

Notification of UPSC Prelims Exam Date

2nd February 2020

Last Date to Submit Application Form

3rd March 2020

Prelims Exam Admit Card Available

June 2020

Civil Services Preliminary Exam Date

31st May 2020 (1 Day)

 Exam Result 2020 (Prelims)

August 2020

 Admit Card for Main Exam

September 2020

 Main Examination Date

18 September 2020 (5 Days)

 Final Result Declaration Date

 January 2021

Interview Test Date

The second week of February 2021

Indian Administrative Services (IAS) is the career dream for millions of aspirants in our country. Same services like with Indian Police Administrative (IPS)

Recruitment to 24 services like IAS, IPS, Ifs, IRS, etc is conducted a common exam called Union public services commission (UPSC). UPSC is the agency which takes cares of the entire recruitment process

How to start your UPSC Preparation

Civil Services Exam (CSE) consists of 3 stages they are:

1.    Preliminary Exam (objective)

2.    Main Exam (essay)

3.    Final round interview (personal Test) 

Students have to cross each stage to move to the next level. The level of difficulty will be increasing with each stage. The last level will be a tough nut to crack they will check your ability to write and also mental strength and ability to deal with situations. So it requires a special kind of preparation to overcome the UPSC interview stage.

In these initial stages, most of the students who prepare for the Civil Services Exam are quite confused. Many of them are not sure how to start preparation and what to study they will be having a number of quires on their mind related to the Civil Services Exam. Many of the students will be not sure how to crack IAS Exam.

Many of the students not sure coaching is a must and should or not and also Most of the students don’t know the importance of coaching simply they think that there are wasting their money by taking coaching from an institute student who wants to become an IAS AFTER 10TH standard (Integrated IAS Coaching) they can crack the IAS exam in the first attempt

UPSC Preparation after 10th

UPSC preparation after 10th who prepare for IAS, they need proper guidance’s at that age they don’t have Ideas if the student will take course form institutes. BEST IAS Coaching Institutes (Hyderabad) play a key role in shaping the career of students.IAS Aspirants instead of preparing by themselves can take the assistance of coaching institutes who can after a specific strategy. The guidance can help you to reach heights if you have the passion and dedication needed to reach your goal.  Many of the best IAS institutes are there choose the best to get proper guidance.

Preparation for IAS to Crack in the first attempt

 Have your attempt UPSC Exam on this it's great if in case you haven't attempted this exam will we have the option to prepare for next year 

Cracking UPSC exam in the first attempt is a very big task for each and every person so before you start preparing for UPSC you should have a plan for every competitive exam

If you are confused about your studies I recommend this because.

  • Make note important points from the topic which you learned for a day
  • Concentrate on the updated news rather than factual data.
  • Interconnect with the news.
  • Analyze the news. Pictorial notations help you more.
  • To eliminate unnecessary stuff. Caution: unnecessary stuff is more tempting. Beware!
  • Join into what’s app IPS groups and make an interaction with them they usually update recent news.

Time table for Preparation of UPSC 2020

Start your IAS preparation for 2020 if you wish to appear for the Prelim exam on the year (2020). Begin your preparation of the optional subject, from the second week of July 2019 to October( 4 months) of the year 2019 and General Studies for both Prelim and Main exam from December to March of the year 2020 and take the Prelim exam in June of the year 2020.

After taking the Prelim exam, from June to September of the year 2020, you can revise your optional subjects and General Studies and prepare the Essay paper before taking the Main exam in the month of September 2020.

I hope you will take your UPSC preparations very seriously. The first step towards your dream chooses IAS Coaching. Focus on how to prepare for UPSC, rather think than why the IAS the exam is so tough.

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2019-05-29 | By CCSA

Monsoon Mission of India

Weather conditions of a country define the socio-economic prosperity of a country. Monsoon mechanism of India is one of the complex phenomena on which the country's economy is dependent. More than 70% of the population is dependant on agriculture and a little change in the mechanism of monsoon may have a huge impact on the production of crops that year. 

Recognizing the importance of monsoon patterns and the dependency of agriculture on monsoonal rainfall, the Ministry of Earth Sciences in collaboration with the Indian Institute of Meteorology (Pune), National centre for medium range weather forecasting and Indian meteorological department (New Delhi) has launched a mission named Monsoon mission of India. 

This mission plays a huge role in predicting the mechanism of monsoon as the current predictions are not adequate. In recent times, several images, super parametrizations, and data assimilation have shown that the variability in tropics can be resolved, which creates a great scope for improving the prediction of monsoons. The mission is supported by international research groups with definite objectives and improve the models in range scale. Base Models to be used are

i) The American model, Climate Forecast System (CFS): developed by National centres of Environmental Prediction (NCEP), NOAA, USA. CFS is a coupled ocean-atmospheric modelling system that combines data from ocean and atmosphere providing long-range forecasting (seasonal prediction of monsoon).

ii) The unified model (UM): This model is developed by the United Kingdom meteorological office (UKMO) which is utilized for short to medium range prediction. Objectives of the monsoon mission are

1) To forecast the onset, period of the monsoon along with the quantity of rainfall.

2) To improve collaboration between academic institutions with research and development organization monsoon.

3) To extend the range of monsoon prediction system and also short term prediction system.

4) To provide information and assistance to the farmers depending on monsoon which effects both surplus and deficit condition.

5) To warn the distressed areas in case of excess rainfall and also at the situation of droughts.

6) To predict very complex phenomena, El-Niño, and its impact on Indian monsoon. Achievements of Monsoon Mechanism:

1) It helped to forecast numerous disasters from the past 7 years and many cyclonic disasters like Hud-Hud, Phailan, that rescued many people from the flood-prone areas with management activities.

2) With this mission, the weather conditions are forecast and that helps farmers by
providing them with prior information and guidance.

3) It is able to check the pollution levels and environmental conditions that affect the pattern of monsoon.

4) It increased the share of contribution of manpower and human resources development program towards research and their expertise in technology, particularly in meteorology and atmospheric sciences.

Monsoon mission of India is one of the highly advanced missions improved for the prediction of monsoonal rainfall. With this, the pattern of monsoon is predicted and also ICAR (Indian Council for Agriculture Research) with the information provided by the mission and Indian Meteorological department assists the farmers to produce certain crops especially at the situation of deficit excess rainfall so that the production is optimum without a huge loss. Since the launch of mission in 2010, it is always improving in technology to predict accurately and also protecting the sector and disaster-prone areas by providing prior information.

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2019-05-24 | By CCSA

Black holes –The Invisible Monsters

The recent photo of a black hole taken by the Event Horizon Telescope has created excitement and amazement around the world (see fig.3). This was the first instance when a black hole was seen in real, rather than the reel. Black holes were earlier restricted to science fiction movies and novels but not anymore (In the movie Interstellar, a black hole named Gargantua was shown (fig 1). This was the closest man ever came to picturing a black hole).

         Fig.1: Gargantua in the movie Interstellar

What are Black holes?
A black hole is a region of space-time which is so twisted that even light cannot escape its gravity. These monsters can be understood using Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity. Einstein imaged the space-time as a fabric which could be bent and even twisted by heavy objects(see fig 2).

            Fig.2(bending of spacetime fabric)

Now imagine an object which is a billion times heavier than Sun; this object can bend spacetime around itself to such an extent that even light cannot escape it.

The black dot at the centre of a black hole is called a singularity, where the laws of physics breakdown.

Fig.3: Image of a black hole taken by event horizon telescope

Evolution of the concept of black holes:

The concept of black holes was first proposed by John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace independently.

The idea was not taken seriously until Einstein entered the picture in 1915 with his General Theory of Relativity.

Einstein did not take the possibility of black holes seriously, however, a German named Schwarzschild calculated that if the mass of the object was too large then it would shrink to a tiny point called Singularity.

The boundary of such an object is called Event Horizon and the radius below which even light cannot escape is called the Schwarzchild radius.

An India born Physicist named Chandrasekhar showed that not all objects would collapse into black holes. He introduced a limit called the Chandrasekhar limit.

John Wheeler coined the term Blackhole.

Later, Roger Penrose and Hawking did fundamental work in the field of black holes. Hawking merged General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics and showed that black holes also lose energy and would one day die, albeit a slow death.

Hawking also predicted that the primordial black holes(which were formed in the early stages of the universe) contained dark matter. However, recent studies show that this is not true.

Conclusion: The picture of a black hole is a symbol of human ingenuity, endurance, and perseverance. It shows the power of imagination of individuals like Einstein and Hawking. A black hole may be a monster but not invisible anymore. It will surely inspire the next generation of physicists and astronomers to look deep into the secrets of the universe.

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2019-05-23 | By CCSA

Peasant movements in India during Indian freedom struggle

With the beginning of the colonial rule, the peasant movements and uprisings remained a common feature in Indian history. Because of the exploitation of the colonial rule that started through land revenue collection created discontent among the peasant communities in India. Initially, these movements were spontaneous responses by the peasants which were not very organized, not based on any ideology and violent in nature, that is why the movements in the first half of 19th are called a pre-political peasant movement.

But over the period transformations could be noticed in such peasant movements. In 2nd half of 19th. century the peasants were better organised, they started using the colonial system / administrative system to show their discontent; such as the court. But most importantly the peasants got support from the middle-class intelligentsia through newspapers and other writing. The Agrarian leagues established in Bengal are very good examples of this, but it does not mean that they became completely political as the previous forms of resistance were still carried out by them.

From the 2nd decade of 20th Century again a drastic change was noticed in the peasant movements. Now, these movements could be called political movements. Such peasant organisations were first noticed in UP which was initiated by the active members of home rule league. The UP Kiran Sabha (1918) with the efforts of Gauri Shanker Misra, Madan Mohan Malviya, Indra Narayana Diwedi came into existence and started establishing branches in various tehsils, apart from other methods of mobilization (social boycott).

The nayi-dhobi band was a very popular method to bring those people into the movement who were not actively participating. The sabha was better organised by Baba Ramachandra in a later stage. Baba Ramachandra brought the movement to the national platform by coordinating with national leaders like Nehru.

This movement got good support from the District Commissioner Pratapgarh Mehta as he got ready to inquire into the peasant complaints regarding Bedakhil & Nazrana. In 20 UP Kisan
Sabha got involved in any strikes and finally, with the declaration of NCM, they decided to club their movement with NCM.

But all the leaders of Kisansabha were not willing to participate in the movement and stuck to agitation which resulted in a new organisation called Awadh Kisan Sabha, more radical compared to the previous one. It included people from both high caste & low caste. The centres of the activity of the movement were Raibareilly & Faizabad. Some new trends could also be noticed in the new organisation such as looting of bazaars, granaries, & houses, and clashes with police. Some non-political people & local figures such as sadhu holy men and disinherited exproperietors were leading such activities. Under the pressure of the movement, the Govt. had to pass Seditious
Meeting Act and Awadh Rent Amendment Act towards the end of the year another movement started called Eka movement. The centre of the movement shifted to the North. This movement
was used to mobilise people.

This movement is known for its rent leaders such as Madari pasi and caste leaders. This the movement was initially towards NCM and Gandhian Ecology.

There are two more movements known as Kisan / peasant movements very popular in Indian History these were popular movement & Bardoli movement. In the first one, the issue was local and was started by local people, but later on, clubbed with NCM.

Note: This was a feature common to most of the peasant movements: that the issues were regional, but they linked it to the Non-cooperation movement and made it a national concern,
which became an important reason for the success of the Non-cooperation Movement.

Over the period this movement became communal as the poor and illiterate peasant could not draw a line between a political movement and communal violence, and finally, Congress
stopped supporting the Moplah movement. In 1928 a no tax movement was started in Bardoli under Sardar Patel. The people are these areas were already mobilised and trained by Kalyanji
and Kurwarmenta. This movement was run under the Gandhian method and finally, the govt had to surrender and the reduced the hike from 21.97% to 6%.

Most of the Peasant movements were supported by the Congress in this stage as long as it remained non-violent. Once it became violent, Congress stopped supporting such movements.

This is a matter of debate among historians, as per some historians the violence was beyond the Congress method so they did like that whereas some argue that Congress wanted to save such movements from colonial suppression.

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2109-05-23 | By CCSA

Phases of the Ancient Indian Potteries

Pottery or ceramics or ceramic art refers to the creation of objects that are made up of hard brittle material produced from nonmetallic minerals by moulding them while the material is wet and then firing them at high temperatures. They are often made up of clay, porcelain, steatite, and so on. Pottery plays an important role in studying culture and reconstructing the past. Historically with a distinct culture, the style of pottery changed. It reflects the social, economic and environmental
conditions a culture thrived in, which helps the archaeologists and historians in understanding our past. It holds significant value in understanding cultures where the script was either absent or
remains un-deciphered. Understanding of presence of fire, cooking, storage, sedentary or migratory populace, social stratification can all be developed via studying pottery. For people,
pottery provided opportunity to store, cooks, transport and trade and essentially became an expression of artistic creativity.

Pottery is a major of two types:
 Wheel has thrown

Handmade pottery is rather primitive style pottery developed in early ages which with time transformed to wheel thrown. The different motifs drawn on the surface play an important role in
understanding a culture and its beliefs.
Evolution of Pottery

I. Neolithic Age

We find the first reference of pottery in this age. Naturally, it is hand-made pottery but during the later period, foot wheel is also used. 


Unglazed/unburnished, that is having a rough surface
Handmade coarse grey pottery Material – clay mixed with mica and sand Pottery is devoid of any painting In many cases, twisted rice husk cords were impressed into wet clay for decoration
Found throughout India including the South, Burzahom – coarse grey pottery Included black-burnished ware, grey ware and mat-pressed ware

II. Chalcolithic Age

Chalcolithic Era, the first metal age, is marked by the occurrence of distinct cultures in various
parts of our country namely – Ahar culture in South Eastern Rajasthan, Malwa culture in
Western MP, Jorwe culture in Western Maharashtra, etc.
People of this age used different kinds of pottery.

1. Black-and-red-ware Pottery

Black and red ware seem to have been widely used. Cultures like Ahar-Banas showed the presence of Black and Red ware pottery with white linear designs.

2. Black-on-red ware Pottery

It is of the Jorwe culture where most of the ware is painted black-on-red and has a matt surface treated with a wash.

3. Ochre Coloured Pottery (OCP)

OCP people are regarded as the junior contemporaries of Harappa. This pottery is identified with the Copper Hoard Culture that was found in upper Ganga Valley and Ganga Yamuna doab area.


The colour of the pottery ranges from orange to red.
The period covered by the OCP culture is roughly placed between 2000 BC and 1500 BC.
Major sites are – Jodhpur (Rajasthan), Attranjikhera (UP), Ganeshwar, located near Khetri copper mines were initially believed to have OCP but researches have confused this.

III. Mature Harappa:

Polished Ware Pottery with a rough surface


Both polished and unpolished type of pottery existed
Pottery generally has a red surface and is wheel thrown although handmade ones too exist Polished wares were well fired.
Most of the pottery is polychrome meaning more than two colours are used to paint the pottery. Most of the pottery is utilitarian.

Such potteries usually have flat bases with geometrical design along with paintings depicting flora and fauna are observed
Perforated pottery was also found may be used for straining the liquor. Pottery throughout the civilization was uniform (mass is thrown) revealing some form of control and leaving less space of individual creativity Presence of luxurious pottery obtained from certain sites reveals economic stratification in the society Burial Pottery of Harappa Burnished and painted pottery
Burial pottery was specially and distinctly made
Reveals the Harappan belief in life after death
Presence or absence of this pottery in the grave goods reflected social stratification

IV. Late Harappa

Ochre Colored Pottery (OCP) – As we know the late Harappan cultures (1900BC – 1200BC) were primarily chalcolithic. Some specific chalcolithic sites show the elements of late Harappan
(like the use of burnt bricks, etc). These sites have OCP.
Black-grey burnished ware produced on the slow wheel – Found in Swat Valley. This resembles the pottery from north Iranian plateau. Black-on-red painted and the wheel turned pottery – Also found in Swat Valley. This shows the connection that Swat Valley was associated with Harappa. Grey-ware and Painted Grey Ware, generally associated with Vedic people have been found in
conjunction with some late Harappan pottery. It has less intricate designs as compared to the early and mature periods suggesting a dilution of the rich culture.

V. Vedic Era–PGW

The Vedic Era saw the emergence of Painted Grey Ware (PGW) Culture. The Rig Vedic sites
have PGW but iron objects and cereals are absent. Hence it is considered a pre-iron phase of PGW. On the other hand, the Later Vedic sites are considered iron-phase of PGW. This pottery is an Iron Age pottery found in Gangetic plain and Ghaggar – Hakra valley, lasting from roughly 1200 BC – 600 BC. Mathura was the largest PGW site. Characterized by a style of fine, grey pottery painted with geometric patterns in black. These are confined to few geographical locations, namely – Punjab, Haryana and upper Ganga Valley. This culture is associated with village and town settlements (but without large cities)

VI. Later Vedic Era–NBPW

The later Vedic people were acquainted with 4 types of pottery – Black-and-red ware, black
slipped ware, painted grey ware and red ware.

VII. End of Later Vedic Era – NBPW

Towards the very end of Later Vedic Age around 6th century BCE, we see the emergence of 2nd the phase of urbanization (1st being Indus Valley Civilization). This era marked the beginning of the
Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). It was glossy and shining type made of fine fabric and served as tableware for the richer class. Considered deluxe pottery only found with the elites
revealing societal stratification which was a result of Brahmanical hegemony. This pottery continued to exist during the Mahajanapada era. It is found in Ahichatra, Hastinapur (both in
UP), Navdatoli (Madhya Pradesh). It is further classified into two groups – bichrome and monochrome:-

(a) Monochrome pottery has a fine and thin fabric. Posted on the fast wheel and have a strikingly lustrous surface. 90% of this type is jet black, brownish black and bluish black and 10% have colours like pink, golden, brown among others.

(b) Bichrome pottery is found less. It shows all the features of monochrome except that it shows a combination of two colours.

VIII. Megalithic Era

This culture is placed between- 3rd Century BCE to 1st Century CE. Megaliths refer to
monuments constructed of big (mega) stones (lith). This culture is particularly known for its large stone graves. In the South, this age is characterized by the use of iron. Megalithic Pottery is mostly found in today’s Kerala.


Well baked and durable

Wheel has thrown

The bulk of these is plain. However, a shard from Koldihawa reveals black painting on the surface. It has been excavated throughout India but majorly from the South, mostly in Vindhya region. They were used as grave goods revealing a belief in life after death.

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2019-05-08 | By CCSA

Important Instructions to fill Online Application Form

1. Candidates are advised to go through the instructions carefully before filling up the application form.

2. Online submission of application can only be made at website Detailed instructions are available at the site. Candidate should read the instructions carefully before making any entry or selecting options. Candidate should supply all the required details while filling up the online form. Mandatory fields are marked with * (asterisk) sign. Candidates may please note that changes are not allowed in the online application, once it is submitted. If you wish to make any changes, you may submit a fresh application with requisite revision by the last date for receipt of application i.e. 13-06-2019 (6:00 P.M.). Your registration-id for latest completely submitted application will be considered for processing and all earlier submitted applications will stand cancelled. It is also advised that the email-id and mobile number must be retained for future references.

3. Online Application Form is available in English and it can only be filled in English Language.

4. The filling of online application contains two parts.

5. In Part I registration, the candidate will have to fill basic information. On submission of details, the candidate will be prompted to check the details and make a correction, if any, in the application.

6. Part-II Registration consists of the following Stages. filling up Payment details (except for fee exempted candidates), selection of examination centre, uploading of Photograph, Signature, Photo Identity Card Document and Declaration.

7. Registration of Part-I & Part-II will be treated as valid from 06-05-2019 to 13-06-2019 (6:00 P.M.).

8. Candidate must press “I agree” button after he /she finds that information supplied by him /her is in order and no correction is required. Thereafter no correction/modification 2 shall be allowed.

9. When “I agree” button is pressed, a page with Registration Number will be generated. Please note down Registration Number or take a print out of the page. The application is incomplete without payment, selection of centre, uploading of scanned photograph, signature, Photo Identity Card Document and agree to declaration.

10. Scanned photograph should be in JPG format and must be uploaded first. The digital size of the file should not exceed 300 KB each and must not be less than 20 KB and resolution 350 pixels (Width) X 350 pixels (Height) minimum, 1000 pixels (Width) X 1000 pixels (Height) maximum and Bit Depth of image file should be 24 bit.

11. After uploading your photograph then upload your scanned signature in JPG format. The digital size of each file should not exceed 300 KB each and must not be less than 20 KB and resolution 350 pixels (Width) X 350 pixels (Height) minimum, 1000 pixels (Width) X 1000 pixels (Height) maximum and Bit Depth of image file should be 24 bit.

12.Next upload your photo identity card document in PDF format only. The digital size of the PDF file should not exceed 300 KB and must not be less than 20 KB.

13. Candidates can pay the application fee online through Net banking or through credit card/debit card, or pay in the case at CCSA Branches.

14. There who pay in the case must enter the receipt number while filling the application.

15. Those who are exempted from payment of fee can skip steps 14 to 16.

16. Please provide the photo identity card number and upload a copy of the same in Online Application Form and remember to carry it at the time of Personality Test/Examination at the venue.

17. On successful completion of your complete application, an auto-generated email message will be sent on your registered email id. In case the email is not received by you please check/ensure that submission of Part-II of the Application has been made by you

For more information Please Check this Link: CSCSE, Instructions to fill Online Application Form 

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2019-05-07 | By CCSA

CSCSE Notification






1. CANDIDATES TO ENSURE THEIR ELIGIBILITY FOR THE EXAMINATION: The Candidates applying for the examination should ensure that they fulfill all eligibility conditions for admission to examination. Their admission to all the stages of the examination will be purely provisional subject to satisfying the prescribed eligibility conditions. Mere issue of e-Admit Card to the candidate will not imply that his/her candidature has been finally cleared by the Academy. The Academy takes up verification of eligibility conditions with reference to original documents only after the candidate has qualified for Interview/PersonalityTest.

2. HOW TO APPLY: Candidates are required to apply Online by using the website Detailed instructions for filling up online applications are available on the above mentioned website. Brief Instructions for filling up the "Online Application Form" given in Appendix-II. Candidate should have details of one Photo ID Card viz. Aadhaar Card/Voter Card/PAN Card/Passport/Driving Licence/Any other Photo ID Card issued by the State/Central Government. The details of this Photo ID Card will have to be provided by the candidate while filling up the online application form. The candidates will have to upload a scanned copy of the Photo ID whose details have been provided in the online application by him/her. This Photo ID Card will be used for all future referencing and the candidate is advised to carry this Photo ID Card while appearing for Examination/PersonalityTest.

3. LAST DATE FOR RECEIPT OF APPLICATIONS: The online Applications can be filled up to 13th June, 2019 till 6:00 PM. The eligible candidates shall be issued an e-Admit Card one week before the commencement of the examination. The e-Admit Card will be made available in the CCSA website [] for downloading by candidates. No Admit Card will be sent by post.

4. PENALTY FOR WRONG ANSWERS: Candidates should note that there will be penalty (negative marking) for wrong answers marked by a candidate in the Objective Type Question Papers.

5. FACILITATION COUNTER FOR GUIDANCE OF CANDIDATES: In case of any guidance/information/clarification regarding their applications, candidature etc. candidates can contact CCSA’s Facilitation Counter of its campus in person or over Telephone No. 8340960001/2/3 on working days between 10.00 hrs and 17.00 hrs.

6. MOBILE PHONES BANNED: (a) The use of any mobile phone (even in switched off mode), pager or any electronic equipment or programmable device or storage media like pen drive, smart watches etc. or camera or blue tooth devices or any other equipment or related accessories either in working or switched off mode capable of being used as a communication device during the examination is strictly prohibited. Any infringement of these instructions shall entail disciplinary action including ban from future examinations.

For more information Please Check this Link : CSCSE Notification

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2019-04-30 | By CCSA

Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code

1.      IBC Code 2016: Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code was passed on 11th May 2016

Objective: To consolidate existing laws related to insolvency in India, and to simplify the process of insolvency resolution.

What is Insolvency?

                It is the inability of individuals to repay their debts (i.e. their being illiquid)

What is Bankruptcy?

                It is the legal declaration of insolvency

                2ND Meaning: Lack of assets to pay back

Need for IBC?

As there is no single law dealing with I+B in India. The Liquidity of companies and individuals was handled under various acts (around 12 of them). Some were.

                i) Presidency Towns insolvency Act, 1909

                ii) The Provincial insolvency Act, 1920

                iii) Sick Industrial Companies Act, 1920

iv) SARFAESI Act: The Securest and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002

v) Companies Act, 2013

vi) Recovery of debts due to banks and financial institutions, Act

Problems to be tackled: (From earlier system)

1) Overlapping jurisdiction of different authorities

2) High Court, Company Law, BIFR (Board for Industrial & Financial Reconstruction), Debt Recovery Tribunal

3) This overlapping jurisdiction of different authorities and multiplicity of laws made the process of insolvency resolution very cumbersome in India

Present Scenario:

                1. Nearly 60,000 cases are pending in India’s Court

2. According to World Bank data, it takes an average of 4.3 years to wind up a company in India. It is easier to start a business than winding it up

Reform: (New): Proposed:

                1. The Insolvency & Bankruptcy Code seeks to cut wind-up time to 1 year

                2. Also, the recovery of a debt under is just 25.7% in India

3. The new code seeks to help banks and other creditors from recovering their loans from the bankrupt company in a timely and efficient way.

Salient Features of IBC:

1. The IBC code 2016 is a comprehensive law and covers all individuals, companies, Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs), and Partnership firms

2. The adjudicating authority is NCLT (National Company Law Tribunal) for Companies & LLPS; and Debt Recovery Tribunal (DRT) for individuals and partnership firms

3. The insolvency resolution process can be initiated by any of the shareholders of the firm


4. The power of the management and the board of the firm is transferred to the committee of creditors (COC). They act through the IP.

5. If the adjudicating authority accepts, an insolvency resolution or IP appointed.

6. The IP has to decide whether to revive the company (Insolvency resolution) or liquidate it(Liquidation)

7. If they decide to revive it, they have to be willing to buy the firm

8. The creditors also have to accept a significant reduction in debt

9. This reduction is known as a haircut

10. They invite open bids from the interested parties to buy the firm

11. They choose the party with the best resolution plan that is acceptable to the majority of the creditors (75% in CoC) to take over the management of the firm.


To summarise the above, the IP has to decide whether to carry out insolvency resolution process or liquidation. They decide to do insolvency resolution when the firm can be made economically variable. They find a new buyer for the form to allow it to continue its operations. The creditors have to accept a haircut.

What is Haircut?

  • The loss is undertaken by the bank, to recover the loan given

      •The law prescribes that this insolvency resolution process has to be completed within 180 days.

                   •It can be extended to 90 days if the case is complex. If the decision is not reached within the time frame, the firm will be liquidated.

Latest Update:

The government passed an ordinance in Nov 2017 to annex the IBC. It barred wilful defaulters and the people associated with defaulting firms (promoters, etc.) from participating in the insolvency process.

Who is a Wilful Defaulter?

It means the promoter of the defaulting firm is not allowed to buy back its own firm.

It creates a moral hazard. The promoter may wilfully default on his loans and run the company into bankruptcy in order to buy back his company later

Things to Remember:

•             Insolvency Professionals (IP)will be members of the IPA (Insolvency Professional Agency) created under the bankruptcy code;

o             The IPA will certify the IPs

•             The code will also address the cross border insolvency through bilateral agreements with other countries. Information utilities have also been created to collect, collate, and give all information about debtors to make a database about serial defaulters.

•             Insolvency & Bankruptcy Board will be set up to regulate the insolvency professionals agencies & information utilities

Benefits of IBC: “Exit is just asimportant as ease of Entry”

  • Easy exit ensures the survival of the fittest in the market and leads to optimum allocate of capital.

Some Ancillary benefits

•             IBC code will improve the EODB Ranking (77th / 190[2018])

•             Will improve investment and entrepreneurship in the economy

•             It will help resolve India’s bad debt problems, and banks will be able to recover their loans from the bankrupt companies in a timely manner.

•             The code could reduce the chances of another case like Kingfisher in India

•             The timely resolution will free up the bank’s resources and increase credit availability in the economy. In other words, it has the ability to resolve India’s balance sheet problem.

RBI: In June 2017, the RBI directed the Banks to file insolvency Applica’s for 12 large accounts that have defaulted on their loans

•             Beneficial to the bank

•             Will clear their books

•             But, it will also mean acceptance of a significant reduction in debt and suffer huge losses (Hair cut)

•             Hair cut Will lead to capital depletion

•             This is one reason courts decided to recapitalise the banks by 2.11 lakh crores. However, things did not move fast.

The stand of SC:

SC gave a green signal in Jan ‘19, hearing many petitions on the sincerity of IBC and said it was much needed.

Conclusion: It is now expected that the IBC will move faster & financial creditor gets their loans in time.



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2019-04-30 | By CCSA

Judicial Activism

Judicial activism is generally defined as the court rulings made based on political or personal views of the judges presiding over the case.

It occurs when courts do not confine themselves to the textual interpretation of the law, and instead use judicial creativity for interpreting the law and also providing relief. Judiciary may also apply new rules in a broader context rather than adjudicating on the specific issues.

E.g.: Vishaka Case – Prevention of Sexual Harassment in Workplaces.

           In an extreme sense, Judicial Activism also refers to such cases where Judiciary may give certain guidelines on an issue even before the same is considered by Legislature and Executive.


•        Under the context of protecting the spirit of the constitution, it may overrule a law passed by the Legislature.

•        Through liberal interpretation of rights and deriving new rights out of it. E.g: Right to pollution free environment derived from Article 21.

•        The radical departure from a normal interpretation and judgement.


According to Justice Krishna Iyer – “The main reason for judicial activism was that the judiciary was trying to reach out, either because the government has failed or has been indifferent. Thus it is the vacuum created by the other two (Legislature and Executive) organs of the government which has forced the judiciary to intervene on behalf of constitution and citizens.”

There is a section which argues that judicial activism is not real rather it is only a continuation or extension of judicial activism since the judiciary is performing the task of guardian of Fundamental Rights.

                     According to Former Chief Justice of India, P.N. Bhagvathi -“Judiciary functions can’t be just relegated to a photographic theory of judicial functions” – i.e., the duty of a judge is only to find the law and lawmaking do not belong to him. This, he says was conceived so as to preserve the neutrality of judges. However, he says that this does not mean that judges will be mute spectators when there are injustice and system failure. It is then that the judicial innovation becomes necessary to invest law with meaning and purpose.

                     In both, the statements the honourable judges have indirectly described how during the vacuum or need the judiciary has emerged as an institution of hope and faith to cater to the needs of the society.

                     As per the theory of separation of powers the functions of the government are divided among the different organs of the government namely Legislature, Executive and Judiciary and each organ has their own responsibility and jurisdiction given under the constitution.

                     Cultures are meant to change and societies are meant to change. And as per needs of the continuously evolving society, the legislature to holds the responsibility to formulate laws.

                     But it has been observed that because of political obligation the legislature at times has failed to deliver and cater to the needs of the changing society. In light of that, the judiciary has taken proactive actions in order to set things right.

Recent Issues:

Constitution has laid down the laws, procedures and infrastructure for the administration of the country, but when it comes to the conflict between constitutionality vs. morality and public opinion there are no clear cut demarcations. Whenever the relationship between the judiciary and public opinion is questioned, there has not been any clear cut answer to that. For instance, with respect to the procedures of appointment to the constitutional positions and quasi-constitutional positions like CBI (Central Bureau of Investigation director), the judiciary has always considered the public opinion and interest over the politicization of such appointments. Moreover, many of the court’s guidelines came at a time whenever a politically motivated executive was found to be moving away from its governance responsibilities. In other words, there was always a political context to India’s history of judicial activism. 

Even with a prolonged period of stable, majority governments capable of passing laws without too much difficulty through both the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, they have failed to do so. It is on the issue of social policy that the relationship between the judiciary and public opinion has become complicated.

           In the recent past, the courts have made important interventions to decriminalize homosexuality (Section 377), remove adultery as a criminal offence (Section 497), ban on unilateral instant triple talaq divorces among Muslims and permit women’s access to shrines such as Haji Ali in Mumbai and Sabarimala in Kerala.

Most of these judgments have not been greeted with significant opposition in the court of public opinion, although there has been some discontent that changes to the Indian Penal Code should have been left to Parliament to work out. There was also some unease over a misconception that by removing homosexuality as a criminal offence the judges were also endorsing same-sex relationships. But that was a passing disquiet that did not distract from the widespread feeling that to declare homosexuals as criminals was a step too far.

The Sabarimala judgment belongs in a different league altogether. Apart from the 1986 Shah Bano judgment - recognizing the importance of alimony to divorced Muslim women - that provoked a negative reaction in Muslim society and compelled the Rajiv Gandhi government to pass remedial legislation, there has been no other judgment that has triggered such a backlash. The right of women of all ages to worship at the Sabarimala temple - thereby removing a ban on all women of child-bearing age - has led to mass protests all over Kerala and unease among Hindus all over the country. The protests, that included a very large number of women devotees, were significant enough to force the communist-led state government of Kerala to call off attempts to allow some women - who turned out to be activists, rather than devotees - to enter the temple under police protection.

The Sabarimala judgment that prioritized Article 14 of the Constitution conferring equality on all citizens over Article 25 giving religious denominations protection of their beliefs, traditions and sacred space, provoked a great deal of opposition. An existing belief that judiciary-inspired social reform initiatives would be readily welcomed and opposition would be token and politically inconsequential were shattered. The faith in the court’s innate wisdom had been bolstered by the fact that the judgments on homosexuality and instant triple talaq were widely, and even internationally, acclaimed. It may also have been felt that by opening the doors of Sabarimala to all, the court was pursuing the logic of social reform initiatives over the ages that included the abolition of Sati, raising the minimum age of marriage, barring temples from discriminating among worshippers on the basis of caste, and granting equal rights of inheritance to women. In short, there was a belief that a historical process was at work.

                     The actions of the judiciary may not be appreciated now but the future generations to come may respect the interventions and praise judiciary for its brave actions taken so far.

                     Having said that, it is also important that the judiciary has to understand and respect the constitutional jurisdiction where interfering in the activities of other organs may raise the status of judiciary from a mere law interpreting body to a crusader of public opinion but it may affect the harmony and balance between the organs which is not desirable.

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2019-04-20 | By CCSA

World Happiness Index-Measure of Success or Excuse for Failure

Success is getting what you want, happiness is wanting what you get. -- W P Kinsella

With the recent release of the World Happiness Report 2019, the World Happiness Index (WHI) is in the news. It has caused a furore in India as it has ranked India a lowly 140 out of 156 countries, pushing Indians to rethink the validity of the WHI. Is it a true measure of real success in life, or is it a consolation prize for those who cannot score on more concrete measures like Per Capita Income? Is happiness a state of mind that depends on an individual, or can it be a reflection of the quality of life of the general public in a country?

Not only is happiness subjective, but even the term ‘happiness’ means different things to different people. It can refer to, among other things, positive emotions like contentment and joy, life satisfaction, subjective well-being which combines both, or eudemonia which depends on excellence and virtue. For the purpose of public policy studies, measures of life satisfaction make the most sense. As early as in the 18 th century, the English Utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham argued that happiness was a primary goal of humans and was a measure of the quality of government performance.

The World Happiness Index was developed by the UN General Assembly in 2011 as a measure of holistic development. Member countries were invited to measure public happiness and use it to guide public policy. The WHI is based on a Cantril Ladder Survey, which means that representative samples of survey respondents in each country are asked to rate their own current lives on a scale of 0 (worst possible life) to 10 (the best possible life). The World Happiness Report correlates the results of the happiness survey with various life factors. While the index itself is based on the respondents’ self-assessment of their quality of life, we cannot dismiss it as a subjective, biased, meaningless number. The report shows a significant correlation between this self-assessed Happiness Index and six key national average life evaluations – Per Capita GDP, Social Support, Healthy Life Expectancy, Freedom to make Life Choices, Generosity, and Freedom from Corruption. There can be little argument that these six life evaluations are a comprehensive assortment of hard and soft quality-of-life indicators. The WHI is clearly a holistic measure of development of a nation rather than an indicator of subjective personal emotions.

If India has to move up the ranks of the happiest nations, we must come out of denial. We must not hide behind conspiracy theories and suspect the reliability and validity of the index or the survey’s results. We must analyse the causes of our unhappiness, rather than blaming a foreign hand or an internal enemy. We need to take an honest look at how we are doing on the six key life indicators and face the brutal truth. Despite tremendous growth in our Per Capita Incomes, the rising inequality between the haves and the have-nots is causing greater envy and anxiety. Well-meaning, grandiloquent public welfare schemes have floundered in the implementation phase, leading to a threadbare social support system. Corruption and red-tapism leave the neediest and deserving scavenging for crumbs, while the lion’s share is diverted to the coffers ofthe rich and powerful. Public health spending in India is far below even the global average, leave alone that of the advanced countries. The poor, undernourished, unhealthy billions are forced to depend on the deplorable public healthcare system. Those who can afford private health care are not much better off, as they are fleeced by unscrupulous doctors and hospitals without getting proper treatment in return. Rampant, unchecked air and water pollution, pesticide use, adulteration, self-medication, illiteracy and ignorance, superstition, all contribute to poor health and life expectancy. Freedom to make life choices is severely restricted in India, right from what we wear and what we eat to where we live and whom we meet. There is little choice or mobility in an ossified social order that decides the hierarchical position of individuals in society, based on their gender, caste, religion, class, and other accidents of birth and affiliations of choice. Generosity and altruism are decreasing across the board in India. At a personal level, nuclear families and urban migration are making selfishness a virtue, while at a national level, the belligerent stance against refugees is in stark contrast to the open arms policy of Finland (the unsurprising leader of the World Happiness Report). Corruption, both coercive and collusive, has long been a way of life in India. It is interwoven in the fabric of India’s political, legal, and commercial systems, and is a root cause feeding the vicious cycle of poverty, deprivation, oppression, and despondency. Is it any wonder then that we are an unhappy lot?

Economically, the tariffs are imposed on the other country when there are unfair trade practices and when a country wants to reduce its import and save the domestic manufacturer. Recent U.S. China Tariff imposition, U.S. has punished Beijing for restricting US investment in China. The US also accused China of stealing American intellectual property, Chinese firms imitating US technologies and Chinese exports are stealing the manufacturing jobs in the U.S., which is against the WTO framework. India has also accused China of disrupting the international trading system through hidden subsidies, currency manipulation and, more recently, technology theft.Now, we analyze the geopolitical aspects of the trade war. Historically, we have two Opium wars of 19th century fought between the imperial powers (Britain and France) and China, as example of aggressive trade war to influence the geopolitics and to prove the hegemony. In both these wars, the imperial powers won and got the commercial privileges and territorial concessions in China. These wars show how a country had been ruined by the imperial powers  not just militarily, but economically and politically also. Therefore, trade wars are not only to disrupt the rival's economy but to weaken its hegemony also.

We can treat the findings of this report as a clarion call to wake up and change things. It is not an easy task to turn things around when the problems are as deep-rooted as they are, but we must resist the temptation to make cosmetic changes and temporarily raise morale through diversionary tactics and colour the sufferings of the common man as a virtuous sacrifice and national contribution. Instead, we must take specific concrete action against each issue. Income equality should not be eliminated by bringing down the rich, but by raising the poor. Fiscal and taxation policies should be designed to reduce poverty, unemployment and inequality. Social support has to be provided by the government directly and through the support of voluntary and charitable organizations. Check and balance mechanisms should be incorporated throughout the implementation chain. Public health and education spending should be increased and made more efficient and effective. The medical system should be properly regulated, and patients should be neither over-treated nor under-treated. Preventive medicine and healthy lifestyles should be promoted. Mental health issues should be seen as a real illness and psychiatric counselling should be provided as required. There should be genuine regulation against pollution of our air, water, and food. Our heritage values of unity in diversity, tolerance, and fraternity, should all be encouraged to improve our freedom to make life choices. Easy universal access to education, employment, entrepreneurship, public facilities, and redressal systems, should empower citizens in the matter of life choices. Reactionary social groups trying to take India back into an age of ignorance under the guise of protecting our heritage should be given no political or official support. Generosity, empathy, and altruism need to become a part of our individual and national character. We need to remember to love our own and at the same time forget to hate others. Corruption must be weeded out, through stringent enforcement of rules and strict punishment for violations. More importantly, the systemic causes of corruption should be identified and eliminated. The government should stick to its job of governance and leave the business to private enterprise. In all these, modern technology can be a great enabler, together with responsible media and empowered citizenry. It is hard work, but a small price to pay for the greatest happiness of the greatest number.

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2019-04-26 | By CCSA


The international financial crisis had impacted many countries economies harshly. China and the U.S. were also affected but their response to this crisis was different. With massive motivation, China quickly chased the double-digit growth rates. The United States, on the other hand, was delayed in slow growth for a decade. With rapid union on the big economies, China has emerged as a new world-power, naval power in the South China Sea and funded infrastructure projects throughout the developing world through its recent aggressive policies.

The new rising world-powers are changing the criteria of supremacy. Whether we talk in the world economy, geopolitics, internal affairs of the countries, we can see the old powers breakdown. The world is ruled by power and the power is obtained with the money. It seems that more the country is economically dominant, more the power it will have to dominate. Therefore, it shows the seeds of a trade war between the countries.

In this era of hyper-globalisation, all most all the countries are inter-linked through the means of trade. It is the trade of goods and services which flourishes the world economy and maintains smooth bilateral relations. But, the economy also decides the position in power equation.

The trade war is when two countries try to save domestic market or try to damage each other's trade with taxes, quotas and tariffs and resulting in extreme protectionism. This economic war can be turned into a political war as well. The trade war has both the economic as well as the geopolitical aspects. It depends on the countries that are indulging in this struggle.

Economically, the tariffs are imposed on the other country when there are unfair trade practices and when a country wants to reduce its import and save the domestic manufacturer. Recent U.S. China Tariff imposition, U.S. has punished Beijing for restricting US investment in China. The US also accused China of stealing American intellectual property, Chinese firms imitating US technologies and Chinese exports are stealing the manufacturing jobs in the U.S., which is against the WTO framework. India has also accused China of disrupting the international trading system through hidden subsidies, currency manipulation and, more recently, technology theft.Now, we analyze the geopolitical aspects of the trade war. Historically, we have two Opium wars of 19th century fought between the imperial powers (Britain and France) and China, as example of aggressive trade war to influence the geopolitics and to prove the hegemony. In both these wars, the imperial powers won and got the commercial privileges and territorial concessions in China. These wars show how a country had been ruined by the imperial powers  not just militarily, but economically and politically also. Therefore, trade wars are not only to disrupt the rival's economy but to weaken its hegemony also.

If we dig deeper, the U.S. and China trade war of 2018 has its seeds in the global financial crisis, which had reduced the economic gap between the U.S. and China because of the high convergence rate of China. China has now influenced the world with its Regional Comprehensive Economic Plan, One Belt One Road initiative, etc. U.S.withdrawals from Trans-Pacific Partnership and following the protectionist policies have given China an opportunity to gain a foot in Asia firmly. China's aggressive policies such as making its base in Djibouti, Sri Lanka, giving loans to poorer countries, naval presence in the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea etc. have troubled the U.S., Japan, India and other big economies and that is why the open Indo-Pacific region etc. are getting boost to counter the Chinese influence and to resolve the bilateral issues amicably.

But, who are the winners and losers? Who is there to bear the consequences? To find this, we try to remind history and analyse the consequences. The U.S. enacted the Smoot- Hawley Act in 1930, levying tariffs of 50% on imported goods and it extrapolated the Great Depression and contributed to World War II up to a certain extent. Because of the retaliation of tariffs, the global trade brought down by 65%, the stock market crashed and many people lost their jobs.

Ultimately, they are the consumers who are impacted the most because of this tit-for-tat tariffs. It can be understood that to compensate for the damage from trade wars, the prices of some commodities could be raised by the producers to compensate losses and that translates to higher prices for consumers. The trade war not only affects the consumers of two countries indulging in war it ripples around the whole globe. It disrupts the global supply chains, investment and stock markets around the world. Therefore, it shows that there are no winners in this territory war.

To curb these type of turf wars, The World Trade Organisation was established in 1995 based on open, market-oriented policies and rooted in the principles of non- discrimination, market access, reciprocity, fairness and transparency. However, WTO is seemed to be ineffective in the recent scenario and needed structural and functional reforms.

WTO is dominated by the big players and they influence the policies and negotiations of trade always. Their policies towards the WTO to control the trade and to keep the power button into their hands always weaken the functioning of WTO. If the WTO weakens, small exporting nations such as the South Asian countries will be exploited by the larger ones.

We have seen in the essay that trade war is not only an economic issue but it is a conflict and tug of war for tilting the power equation and dominating the globe militarily, economically and politically. The sufferer is the poor consumers, workers, small economies. Therefore, it is essential that the world upholds the basic principles of multilateralism and free trade on the basis of rules promised by every country. We have witnessed the devastating effects of isolationist policies and severe effects of trade war based on hidden geopolitical motives. It is the fair trade which connects the people, country and culture and together makes a prosperous world. Therefore, the countries must promote a democratic and rules-based international order in which all nations, small and large, consider as equal and sovereign.

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